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الإثنين، 15 كانون1/ديسمبر 2014

Water in the Arab World

Water in the Arab World
The water issue is particularly in the Arab world importance in view of the limited availability of data as drinking water, according to the index, which leads to that of any country where the average per capita of water annually from 1000- 2000 cubic meters is a country suffering from water scarcity, and therefore the 13 countries Arab fall within the category of a water-scarce countries.

This scarcity of water constantly exacerbated by the increase of high population growth rates. Explains the World Bank report said the average annual per capita renewable and renewable in the Arab world water resources (with the exclusion of the underlying stocks of water in the ground) will reach 667 cubic meters in 2025 after he was 3,430 cubic meters in 1960, a decrease of 80% .

The renewable water resources per year in the Arab region amounts to about 350 billion cubic meters, covering 35% of them by the next river flows from outside the region, as it comes through the Nile River 56 billion cubic meters, and by the Euphrates River 25 billion cubic meters, through the Tigris River and its branches 38 billion cubic meters. Irrigated agriculture and get the lion's share of water resources in the Arab world, as it holds an average of 88%, compared with 6.9% for domestic use, and 5.1% for the industrial sector.

Has identified the World Resources Institute of the Middle East region where water deficit reached a crisis point, and became a prominent political issue, especially along the international river basins.

It has become the subject of water a candidate to ignite wars in the Middle East, according to the analysis of global political circles, especially as most of the Arab countries do not have full control of the headwaters of the waters.

Ethiopia, Turkey, Guinea, Iran, Senegal, Kenya, Uganda and the DRC probably also are countries control about 60% of the headwaters of the water resources of the Arab nation.

There is talk now about the link peace in the Middle East with water after the rape of Israel to share most of the Arab countries of the ring of water. Also, some states took adopts a very serious proposal is in attempts to persuade the international community to apply the proposal of water pricing, and thus international waters sale. It is located at the head of these countries Turkey and Israel.

More seriously, the adoption of some international organizations (like the World Bank and FAO) of those proposals, forgetting the fact that the close link between water security and food security on the one hand, and Arab national security on the other.

«The issue of water in the Arab world is of particular importance given the nature of the strategic location of the Arab nation, where the headwaters located approximately 60 percent of the water resources outside the Arab lands, making them subject to the control of non-Arab countries, and what is even more complicated lies with the suffering of the Arab world of watery poverty up soon to end the threat with increasing population density and continuous development processes. »


The Arabs in the face three challenges to solve the water problem, namely:

First: The waters of the Tigris and Euphrates issue and how to resolve what is currently existing between Turkey, Syria and Iraq on the one hand, and between Syria and Iraq on the other hand.

Second: the ambitions of Israel, which he accused of using water as a key element in the Arab-Israeli conflict, where water constitutes one of the most important political and military elements of the Israeli strategy in order to relate to plans expansion and settlement in Arab lands.

These include ambitions in the Arab water resources of the Jordan River and its tributaries and the Yarmouk River and the water fountains in the Golan and collapsed the Litani and the Hasbani and Wazzani in Lebanon. In addition to Israel's theft of groundwater in the West Bank and Gaza Strip for the benefit of the colonial settlements.

Third: how to cope with the risks of the growing scarcity in the Arab water sources associated with population growth, which require face common Arab efforts politically, economically and scientifically, in order to determine priorities in the distribution of water resources and the rationalization of investment, in addition to the development of environmental awareness of the dangers of pollution, and the development of the techniques used and the reliance on modern technological methods of irrigation and treatment of desertification and refining projects and water desalination, which will see the next phase of increasing the use and investment.

If fact, the water difficult in the Arab world, where its share of the global total rainfall of 1.5% on average does not exceed while an area exceeding 10% of the total land of the world, the reality of the situation in the Arab Mashreq seems more complicated, as no more than his share of 0.2% of the total available water in the Arab world, at a time when consumption rates rise significantly. During the period 1980-1990 doubled the demand for water for agriculture in the GCC eight times, the desire to achieve self-sufficiency for some food, and household consumption increased by three-fold during the same period, due to the improved standard of living. And the importance of the water issue locally, but regionally and, in fact, lies in the direct links to the efforts of development in general, and links to document the agricultural sector in particular, and the fact that government support for the agricultural sector policies is one of the main reasons leading to the depletion of groundwater problems. But those links do not stop at that point, but extends to affect several topics, each of which may have involved a challenge, such as the environment, natural resources and even the state budget deficit.

In a study on the future of water in the Arab region, the Arab Organization for Education, Culture and Science and the Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry lands predicted, the emergence of a water deficit in the region is estimated at about 261 billion m3 in 2030, the rainy study that fell in the Arab countries by about 2238 billion m3 falls including 1488 billion has been estimated m 3 at a rate of 300 mm on areas account for 20% of the Arab world space and about 406 billion m3 falls on the drier areas of rainfall rate between 100 and 300 mm ranges while this rate does not exceed 100 mm in other areas. The study discussed by the ministers of agriculture and water Arabs that the Arab world has a huge stockpile of non-renewable water resources is a strategic reserve is currently investing from about 5%. Estimates and desalinated water treatment amount of about 10.9 billion m3 per year, including 4.5 billion m3 desalinated water and 6.4 billion m3 water, sanitation and agricultural and industrial. As for future water needs are linked to rates of population growth in the Arab world that has become among the highest in the world. It is expected to reach 735 million people in 2030 compared to 221 million people in 1991. To narrow the gap between available water resources and future needs, the study suggested that the two axes of the solution: the first is the development of new water sources and invest the water sources of groundwater represented in several countries basins. The second solution is to rationalize water use and protection

It is therefore clear that the Arab states to give the subject of water resources development and preservation of the highest priority when developing security strategy, and should be the subject of «Water Security» at the top of the list of priorities, due to the lack of traditional water resources, which requires hard work to maintain this resources and development, as well as trying to find new water resources. Especially since most of the headwaters of the river, however, non-Arab countries, which does not give a recipe safe supplier, as the groundwater, in most Arab countries, is limited and mostly non-renewable (depleting) for lack of renewable natural resources include rain is based on the feeding of these reservoirs and increase resources. So you should focus the attention of those in charge of water resources management to maintain the groundwater resources and increasing quantities, and even improve the quality of mind and a strategic stockpile in reservoirs safe.

Alternatives to overcome the current gap between water supply and demand (available water resources and the actual needs of consumption) in the Arab region:

1. rationalization of available water resources consumption.

2. The available water resources development.

3. Add a new water resources.