Industry in the Arab World
1 industrial potential in the Arab world
Available in the Arab world all natural and human resources and wealth, which, if properly exploited to the Arab world has become a major industrial power:
81 billion tons of oil in 1023 m / i
Natural gas 25 billion m 3 235 billion m3
Coal ¼ Milirtun
Electricity production 386 billion reserve
35 billion tons of iron 16 m / i
Phosphate 40 Milirtun
Precious metals 10%
Expansion of the internal market
Two most important Arab industries:
- Iron and steel industry: 18:00 / i (Algeria-Iraq - Egypt).
- Petrochemical Industry: refining of 100 m / i.
- Mechanical Industries: installation / machines for cultivation / transport / Tractors / bus / combines (Algeria) / car (Egypt).
- Textile Industries: cotton (Egypt, Syria) / mystical.
- Fertilizers (Tunisia, Morocco -aldzaúr- Jordan, Egypt).
- Food: Alskr- vegetable oils - food.
3 Arab industry problems:
- The rule of nature Alastakraja- lack of funding - unemployment (14%) - twice Almrdod- similarity industries in the Arab countries - foreign monopolies on basic industries - foot factory - poor maintenance - lack of spare parts - a lack of qualified - tires low wages.
Industrial properties: extractive - lack of heavy industry-the lack of manpower.
Industrial Regions: Rouiba (Algeria) -aldar white-Cairo-Alexandria-Baghdad-Damascus.
4 the development of Arab industry methods
Industry sectors aimed at achieving economic balance, being secure jobs and achieve an increase in productivity and provide goods and services, is one of the important sectors in securing the trigger economic growth. Based on the statistics available, the industrial sector in the Arab countries contributed by 39.2 percent of GDP in 2003. The ratio of the contribution of the quarrying industries 28.3 percent, and the share of manufacturing 10.9 percent, adding that the industry employs more than 20 million factor, accounting for only 17 percent of the total Arab labor.
Economists and stressed the need to pump an annual funds, bringing the total investment in the manufacturing sector to about $ 154 billion in 2010, shows that the industry in the Arab countries still face unequal competition in spite of the efforts made during the past four decades.
Perhaps the most important problems and obstacles that limit the industry progress in the Arab countries, the techniques used and especially the slow modernization of technological component of the industry, and the absence of a unified regulatory strategy combines the steps and decisions taken for the development of the industry. Not to mention the weakness of the necessary funding for industrial projects and high production costs and the scarcity of managerial competencies to lead industrial projects, as well as other constraints related to the absence of industrial services that provide economic, technical and financial advisory centers, and the expansion of the scope of the proliferation of unfair competition on the part of industrial enterprises unlicensed.
You can not develop the industrial sector only through the revision of the priority branches of industry and adjusted in accordance with the requirements of the technological modernization, and continue to work on the renovation restructure the industrial sector and the development of the productive centers.
It also must be addressed energy prices to be encouraging industrial enterprises, and provide export exemptions from income tax, not to mention the need for rationalization of staff by providing technical and scientific support and accelerate the decision-making aimed at improving the economic use of raw materials available locally.
It should be noted in this context, the need to work on the establishment of the Arab opposition, which aims to promote manufacturing industries, and the establishment of the Arab Network for Information and industrial development in the light of international developments, while encouraging industrial incubators in collaboration between the private sector and international organizations. In addition, the application fee for both types of industries threatened with collapse, limiting damage to goods Aligracah, and encourage innovation capabilities in existing industries, and develop a mechanism to ensure the rights of manufacturers and industrialists, as well as giving soft loans to the productive development of industrial projects.
From here it is necessary to emphasize the need to enter the country in an industrial joint ventures with a number of international institutions, including contributing to the success of local industries and the development of existing legislation, and the establishment of industrial zones to attract investment to the industrial sector to achieve it from a positive role in improving the efficiency of resource use.
And must work to adopt the integration of small and medium industries, modern management and encourage their integration with each project, part of an integrated productivity workshops and facilitate industrial licenses for the establishment of factories to the level required procedures.
Based on the above, we can say that the future of the industry in the Arab countries is linked to the availability of potential industrial and energies available in these countries. And generally have to create a mechanism that allows to guarantee industrial investments, it must seek to Arab and regional coordination through the implementation of programs of cooperation and exchange of information between organizations and bodies of the relevant documentation, as well as the establishment of an Arab center for the technology industry and make coping with dumping suffered by Arab industry of countries Arab policies Industrial.
5 industrial situation in the Arab countries in order according to the
state's contribution to income in the industrial GDP
- Egypt: -
Egypt is witnessing an active economic activity in the manufacturing sector, and is the most important industries are petroleum products that represent the first of Egypt's exports, as well as textile and food products and the manufacture of iron and steel, aluminum, metal and engineering products and fertilizers, chemical and pharmaceutical products, building products, cement, phosphate materials industry, and constitute the manufacturing rate 17% of GDP, compared with 6.2% for the extractive industries.
- Saudi Arabia:
Industry is characterized by control of the oil and gas industry, this is normal state produces one-third of what is produced by OPEC and the first Arab nation states production, the oil sector and plays a pivotal role in the Saudi economy, accounting for 36% of GDP and 90% of export earnings and 75% of revenues Treasury. Saudi Arabia iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical industries, fertilizer and light industries such as building materials and manufactured food and animal products, and manufacturing industries constitute 9.5% of GDP and total versus 37.2% for the industries of the strategy.
UAE includes many of the industries most important oil and gas, with oil plays an important role in economic development, and in spite of the diversity of sources of income policy, Msahmt this sector amounted to 36% of GDP and 47% of export earnings and 69% of government revenues, as the country of manufacture
Iron and steel, aluminum, chemicals and petrochemicals, construction materials, glass, dyes and textile industry and clothing Alocalod, constitute the manufacturing rate of 11.1%, versus 30.6% for the extractive industries.
-Controlled oil and refining industry on the most Kuwaiti industry, so that the oil sector is the mainstay of economic construction, accounting for 45% of GDP and 95% of export earnings and 85% of state revenues, has the industry and the financial sector growth led to improved economic performance of the country during
The period 1994 - 1998, in the wake of the Second Gulf War, and along with the oil refining industry there petrochemical, metal products, steel, cement and building materials industry and food industry, as well as some light industry.
The manufacturing rate of 13.3% of GDP compared with 40% for the extractive industries.
Controlled industrial Omani oil refining and gas, despite attempts to diversify sources of income, and the establishment of the capital of local and global funds an attractive economic environment, there is no oil still plays a central role in the Omani economy and affect its revenues on the performance of other economic activity level, and the totals constitute 80% of exports and revenues 78% of government revenue and about 40% of GDP, and along with the oil and refining and gas, which the industry has invested more than $ 4 billion, there is the copper industry as well as small and medium-sized industries, and with the country's projects in the petrochemical, aluminum and fertilizer industry.
Has seized the Bahraini industries petroleum industry, which formed the industry, about 67% of total exports and 57% of the total State revenue and consist of crude oil primarily from Saudi Arabia, which had transferred Abu Saafa oil field on the border of both countries to Bahrain in 1996, which increased from returns
Bahrain's oil, and it should be noted that Bahrain is the only Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which made oil products and does not export crude oil, the country is experiencing a number of industrial projects and expansion projects, particularly in the oil, gas and aluminum sector, along with a number of small and medium enterprises, and helps
In this country enjoy a sophisticated transport and communications systems, making it a center for a number of international companies, and a center of financial and investment activities. The country also includes aluminum, iron and steel, light and medium industries and ship repair industry, smelting, and Ahoilah industries constitute about 14.7% of GDP
Total, compared to 18.7% for the extractive industries.
Oil sector dominated the national economy, accounting for 36% of GDP and 80% of export earnings and 65% of government revenue, and the reasons for it and the results together Qatar has developed a number of industrial projects that use feedstock such as petrochemicals and fertilizers as well as steel projects.
This includes the industrial sector petrochemicals and fertilizers, gas liquefaction and oil refining iron and steel, cement industry, flour mills, as well as detergents and pigment, gypsum, cosmetics, make up the manufacturing rate of 7.5% of GDP compared to 38.1% for the extractive industries, and it should be noted that the country occupies center stage in the volume of industrial activity of natural gas in the region, where it has carried out two major projects for the export of liquid gas (Qatargas and Ayers gas) with the participation of international companies.
Algeria has an industrial base solid qualify for evolution, and country depends mainly on natural gas and oil industry, which account for approximately 57% of the government and 30% of GDP revenue, and more than 95% of exports, and states that the industrial public institutions in Algeria contribute more than
Three-quarters of the Algerian production, along with the oil and gas industry, the iron and steel, light industry, petrochemical and food industries, and manufacturing industries constitute 9% of GDP compared to 30% for the extractive industries.
- To whom:
Yemen is making light except for the oil refining industry, including Yemen, food products and beverages, canned fabric, fish and metal fabrication products and industry, cement industry and constitute a manufacturing 11% of GDP, compared with 30% for the extractive industries, and the survey reported
Industrial that small businesses represent 95% of the total establishments manufacturing and use 48% of the workers in the industrial sector and achieve 26% of the total value of production, and market share of the private sector ownership of most industrial facilities, while foreign private sector's share only 12% do not exceed.
Libya has the industrial sector includes many of the activities, and the most important industries in Libya oil and gas industry, oil and is a mainstay of Libyan economy, accounts for about one-third of GDP and total exports, and despite the international embargo imposed on the country, but the European and Canadian oil companies and expanded its activities oil in the Albea. In addition to the oil and gas industry there are petrochemicals, fertilizers, iron and steel, cement industry, along with other light industries, and manufacturing industries constitute 9.7% of GDP, compared to 24.8% for the extractive industries.
- Morocco: -
Includes Morocco phosphate and textile products, clothing and food industries, leather, shoes, paper and its products, iron and steel products and mining manufactured metal products, chemicals electrical and electronic equipment and products, rubber and plastic industry, and constitute a manufacturing about 17.7% of GDP
GDP, and the extractive industries of 1.8%.
- Tunisia: -
Tunisia interested in the industrial sector of the need to diversify the economic sectors, and is the most important Tunisian industries are textiles, clothing and food industries, leather and footwear, construction materials, electrical and electronic equipment, as well as phosphates, petroleum refining, cement, and constitute the manufacturing rate of 18.6% of GDP, compared with 1.8% for the extractive industries.
- Jordan: -
Jordanian services sector dominates about 75% of GDP, the impact on the industrial sector, which the state is trying to promote it, and formed the most important industries of the Jordanian phosphate and potash, petroleum products, cement, food, textile and chemical industries, pharmaceutical industries and form
Manufacturing 11.4% of GDP, compared to 30.6% for the extractive industries.
- Lebanon: -
Lebanese industrial sector contributes about 19.2% of GDP is the most manufacturing industries, and is the most important industries in Lebanon, textiles and clothing, paper and its products, food manufactures and crafts gems and precious metals, and metal industries, electrical appliances and products, cement, leather industry, footwear and chemical industries.
- Mauritania: -
The country suffers from a shortage of skilled labor, and backwardness in infrastructure, the impact on the industrial sector, which revolves around the fishing industry, where the fishing and processing sector is a vital source of livelihood for the population of the revenues of the country of export, as well as mining of iron ores and Alajafchin, copper, gold, and not Mauritania hydrocarbon sources, but the oil industry is an important sector of the economy Mauritania is one of four countries in West Africa has a refinery worker, and manufacturing industries constitute 8.6% of GDP, compared to 10.9% for the extractive industries.
- Sudan: -
Sudan comprises several industries represented in the textile industry, particularly sugar refining and shipment of flour and vegetable oil production and leather industries, cement and small industries and operates industrial sector card use is low, and constitute the manufacturing rate of 8.8% of GDP, compared with 8.1% of the extractive industries.
- Syria: -
The government's policy in the industrial field, to preserve the industrial public and development sector and expanded and allow private and joint sectors all industrial activities, and includes industrial production on tractors and fertilizers and the cement, electricity, basic industries and oil and gas products, and cotton products and canning fruits and vegetables, dairy products, refineries, sugar and flour mills and contemporary oils, olives, as well as the pharmaceutical, glass, television sets, washing machines and others.
- Djibouti: -
Characterized by the industrial sector in Djibouti and small, which is based on the food and beverage industry and the foundation and dairy products, paper and building materials, water filling and manufactures craft size, and form the manufacturing rate of 3.6% of GDP, compared to 12.4% for the extractive industries.
- Iraq: -
Iraq suffers from a lack of production inputs and destroyed and suffered during the Second Gulf War, and the Iraqi authorities to re-build a large part of what was destroyed, and the reform of most of the oil production facilities has some of the infrastructure, but they are facing a severe shortage of access to raw materials and spare parts necessary to activate the industrial sector, which led to the closure of many of them, and Iraq's rich natural water wealth countries, and has had an important industries in the field of oil, phosphates, iron and steel and aluminum
And petrochemicals, the industry is concentrated mainly on the oil sector .. Before the war, there was a significant industrial projects in terms of the production of phosphate, iron and steel, petrochemicals, fertilizers, aluminum technology and engineering industries, and formed the manufacturing of 7.8% of GDP in 1997, the proportion,
Versus 2.2% for the extractive industries, and this percentage was in 1990 about 8.8% and 14.3%, respectively.
- Somalia: -
Affected Somali industry its economic circumstance, as Somalia Lowest countries are growing in the world, and concentrated industrial sector on the processing of agricultural products, particularly sugar refining and packing of meat and fish processing and tanning, as well as oil refining, with a total design capacity of existing in Somalia Oil Refining 10 thousand barrels a day in 1996, and Somalia has one refinery in Mogadishu refines imported crude oil from Saudi Arabia.