Agriculture in the Arab World
The total area of the Arab countries about 1402 million hectares, or about 10.2% of the total land area in the world and estimated arable land area of about 197 million hectares (14.1% of the total area),
And the spread of agricultural land in the Arab world about the great rivers of Interior: the Nile and the Euphrates and the Tigris, in the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal areas.
And to the availability of suitable climate and heavy water in these areas, unlike the interior desert areas that do not have those advantages suitable for agriculture, and on the other hand, most of the labor and human resources in the Arab world force engaged in agriculture;
The account for about 65% of the total labor force, as well as the available data indicate that the labor force in Arab countries represent about 32% of the total population, equivalent to 92 million workers.
And owns the agricultural sector accounted for 30% of the total workforce, which is equivalent to 27.4 million workers
As the spread in some Arab countries: forests, especially in the Maghreb and Somalia and Saudi Arabia, countries.
The role of grazing in the desert and the interior plain do not forget however it is read to the area of land Almzorah notes that despite the relative increase in the area because of major irrigation projects on the Nile and the Euphrates and the Tigris, but the Agriculture did not reach the end of abundance to the needs of the population.
In statistics Asntijt ratios which cultivated land that make up 4.9% of the
total area of the Arab world and the proportion of forests constitute 2.1% of
the Arab world space Alajamalihwaleradi Grazing constitute 22.3 of the total
area of the Arab world, agriculture contributes about 13% of domestic production
of the Arab nation,
And in spite of the functioning of the most active in the field of agriculture and agricultural crops in a variety of different Arab homeland hand,
Including: grain, fruit trees,
In addition to industrial crops: such as cotton, sugar and olive
The estimated undeveloped land for agricultural production in an area of about 64.8 million hectares, of which 7.4 million hectares are planted to crops sustainable ..
Rain-fed agriculture and is considered the most widespread Arab states,
The total land that rely on rain-fed agriculture, about 30.4 million hectares, equivalent to 53% of the land that are grown seasonal crop area, as an irrigated agricultural land area of about 9.3 million hectares (16%), and the land that leave Bora without the cultivation of about 17.7 million hectares, or about 31% of the total area of land planted seasonal crops.
And estimates available in the Arab states of water resources from all sources by about 259 billion m 3, and the average per capita share of those resources is about 890 m3 / Alsna..otkdr untapped water resources of about 193 billion m3, ie 75% of the total agriculture Moard..otsthoz 87% of water use.
Topping the issue of agricultural development, list the overall development priorities with the owners of political and economic decision as well as the concerns of scholars and intellectuals, due to the growing food deficit in the Arab world and exacerbated, despite the possibilities of human energies and agricultural available financial resources, where it occupies the agriculture sector an important place in many Arab countries economies, especially in providing food products to satisfy the needs of the population and create jobs for a large segment of the population and the provision of intermediate inputs for many manufacturing industries, in addition to its contribution to the sources of foreign exchange through the production of exportable goods.
The following are the names of the first countries in terms of the contribution of the agricultural sector in GDP with male contribution rate:
1. Sudan (34.2%).
2. Iraq (32.1%).
3. Syria (25.6%).
The relative importance of this sector in Arab economies distinctly different depending on the different distribution of resources among them.
Because of the variation in the importance of the agricultural sector in the economic structure of the Arab countries, the importance of this sector in attracting and operation of labor varies among Arab countries as well as the national distribution of the agricultural population shows a clear divergence between the Arab Group, the agriculture sector has attracted about:
1) 72% of the total labor force in Somalia
2) 62% in Sudan
3) 53.4% in Mauritania
4) 52.6% in Yemen
5) 40.2% in Oman
6) 37% in Morocco
7) 30% in Egypt
8) 28.3 in Syria.
In general, the agricultural population decline in Arab countries in recent albeit to varying degrees notes.
This may be due to the relative economic progress and technical and industrial evolution of the countries in the region recently, which led to a decrease in the relative importance of labor in the agriculture sector and its transformation into other sectors.
Arab agricultural output at current prices as well as an estimated $ 85 billion.
The agricultural output for the Arab States of about 13.2% of GDP, a proportion that is of almost constant over the past three years, and vary the contribution of agriculture to the GDP of the Arab country to another.
Varies per capita agricultural output in the Arab countries where it reached $ 1,000 in Iraq and between $ 743 and $ 244 in the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria, Tunisia, and at least $ 100 in Bahrain, Yemen, Kuwait and Jordan.
Report of the Agriculture and Arab food security
situation for the year 2012
Sdran Arab Organization for Agricultural Development Report of the Arab
food security situation of 2012. The report is part of the follow-up and
monitor the developments of the Arab food security situation, and the
associated issues of local, regional and international variables, to inform
decision-makers, policy makers and all those interested in the status of
agriculture Arab food security on what undergone developments, and contribute
to enable them to stand on the effectiveness of the Arab world Arabic programs
and existing mechanisms related to the promotion of Arab cooperation and
coordination in the field of food security, particularly the food gap
management and pave the way for the introduction of amendments to it or suggest
The report reviews developments in productivity and production of food commodities and stocks strategic ones, Arabic, agricultural trade and foreign inter-Arab staple foods, in addition to research trends food and the factors influencing the consumption, and the average per capita food, and the conditions of undernutrition, and rates of self-sufficiency and food gap, Besides highlighting the achievements of the countries included in the geographical framework of the program the emergency Arab food security, and their contribution to the improvement of the Arab food security situation, in addition to the review of projects ready for implementation in the framework of the program and the need to provide funding.
The report also concluded that the challenges facing efforts to reduce the Arab food gap.
The results of the report of 2012 to rise most groups of food commodities of plant and animal production, as well as high available for consumption and rates of self-sufficiency, including in the Arab world, and the stability of the value of the Arab food gap in 2010 and 2011 in the range of 34.35 Mllardolar, and appreciation of about 35 billion dollars in 2012.
These results reflect the serious efforts exerted by the Arab countries in the implementation of the emergency program of Arab food security executive who launched his plan to stage Alawlyfa 2011 components.
Group commodities grain alone contributes about% 50.0 of the value of the gap and is a wheat and flour only 23.13% of them, as the meat group in the value of the gap contribute percent 18.24, and dairy products by about% 10.61, and vegetable oils percent 10.05, refined% 8.45, sugar, and the contribution of these commodities food together about 97.36% of the value of the food gap and leads the Greens group in 2012 goods surplus of about 69.5% of the value of the surplus, while contributing to the fish, potatoes, fruit and about 20.2%, 9.1%, 1.2%, respectively. The report noted that the spaces that are grown in the Arab countries is estimated at 70.9 million hectares and constitutes 5.3% of the total geographical area of the Arab homeland, and 1.45% of the agricultural area in the world, estimated at about 4.9 Milirhectar.
The report noted that the total of Water Resources in the Arab world is about 257.5 billion m3 / year, of which 95.4% traditional water including surface water 81.2%, and 14.1% groundwater. The non-conventional resources of water reuse and desalination by 3.8 and 0.9% of the total respectively.
According to the Arab strategy for water security that the Arab region in order to achieve food security need to provide nearly 550 billion cubic meters of water per year in 2025 in the case of the continuation of the current population growth rates, and equivalent amounts more than double the currently available from the water and up to 257 500 000 000 cubic meters per year.
The report finds that all the Arab water situation indicators confirm the existence of real competition in the use of water to various economic sectors and other needs of the population, and that this will have the greatest impact on agricultural production levels and thus will top threats to Arab food security, in particular, efforts to rationalize the use for agricultural purposes what remains modest, for example not more than the area irrigated by using modern systems on 4.4 million hectares.